Background Reading

Systems of Systems

DG INFSO G3, Report of Workshop on Systems of Systems, Brussels, 2009

M. W. Maier. Architecting Principles for Systems-of-Systems. Systems Engineering 1(4), 1998, pp.267-284.

R. Valerdi, E. Axelbrand, T. Baehren, B. Boehm et al., A research agenda for systems of systems architecting. Intl. Jnl. of System of Systems Engineering 1(1-2), pp.171-188, Inderscience 2008.

Architectural Modelling

R. Payne and J.S. Fitzgerald. Evaluation of architectural frameworks supporting contract-based specification, CS-TR-1233, School of Computing Science, Newcastle University, 2010


OMG. OMG SysML version 1.2., June 2010.

J. Holt and S. Perry. SysML for systems engineering, IET 2008

Formal methods

J. C. P. Woodcock, P. G. Larsen, J. C. Bicarregui and J. S. Fitzgerald. Formal Methods: Practice and Experience, ACM Computing Surveys 41(4), October 2009.


J. C. P. Woodcock and A. L. C. Cavalcanti. The Semantics of Circus. In D. Bert, J. P. Bowen, M. C. Henson, and K. Robinson, editors, ZB 2002: Formal Specification and Development in Z and B, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2272, pp. 184-203. Springer-Verlag, 2002.


J.S. Fitzgerald, P.G. Larsen, P. Mukherjee, N. Plat and M. Verhoef. Validated Designs for Object-oriented Systems. ISBN: 1-85233-881-4. Springer, New York. 2005

VDMPortal,, 2011